Endocrine Glands and their Hormones


Endocrine glands are glands of the endocrine system that secrete their products, hormones, directly into the blood rather than through a duct. The major glands of the endocrine system include the pineal gland, pituitary gland, pancreas, ovaries, testes, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, hypothalamus and adrenal glands. The hypothalamus and pituitary gland are neuroendocrine organs. Local chemical messengers, not generally considered part of the endocrine system, include autocrines, which act on the cells that secrete them, and paracrines, which act on a different cell type nearby. The ability of a target cell to respond to a hormone depends on the presence of receptors, within the cell or on its plasma membrane, to which the hormone can bind. Hormone receptors are dynamic structures

 

  • Pineal Gland- Melatonin
  • Pituitary Gland- Antidiuretic hormone, Adrenocorticotropic hormone, Growth hormone
  • Thyroid- triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4).
  • Thyroid- Thyroid hormone
  • Parathyroid- parathyroid hormone
  • Thymus- Humoral factors
  • Adrenal- adrenaline, aldosterone, cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate
  • Pancreas- insulin and glucagon

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