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Endocrinology is a perplexing investigation of the different hormones and their activities and disarranges in the body. Endocrine Glands are organs that make hormones. These are substances that control exercises in the body and effectively affect the digestion system, multiplication, nourishment retention and use, development and improvement and so on. Hormones likewise control the way a living being reacts to their environment and help by giving sufficient vitality to different capacities. Diabetes is brought about by diminished creation of insulin or by diminished capacity to utilize insulin. Insulin, the hormone delivered by the beta cells in the pancreas, permits cells to have the capacity to utilize glucose. The chemical reactions of metabolism are organized into metabolic pathways, in which one chemical is transformed through a series of steps into another chemical, by a sequence of enzymes.

  • Track 1-1Retinopathy
  • Track 1-2Nephropathy
  • Track 1-3Neuropathy
  • Track 1-4Angina pectoris and myocardial infarction
  • Track 1-5Transient ischemic attacks and strokes
  • Track 1-6Peripheral arterial disease

Diabetes, often referred to by doctors as diabetes mellitus, describes a group of metabolic diseases in which the person has high blood glucose, either because insulin production is inadequate, or because the body's cells do not respond properly to insulin, or both. Patients with high blood sugar will typically experience polyuria, they will become increasingly thirsty  and hungry. The early symptoms of untreated diabetes are related to elevated blood sugar levels, and loss of glucose in the urine. High amounts of glucose in the urine can cause increased urine output and lead to dehydration .

  • Track 2-1Controlling blood sugar (glucose) levels is the major goal of diabetes treatment, in order to prevent complications of the disease.
  • Track 2-2Type 1 diabetes is managed with insulin as well as dietary changes and exercise.
  • Track 2-3Type 2 diabetes may be managed with non-insulin medications, insulin, weight reduction, or dietary changes.

An endocrine tumor is a mass that affects the parts of the body that secrete hormones. Because an endocrine tumor starts in the cells that make hormones, the tumor itself can make hormones and cause serious illness. There are several types of endocrine tumors. For more specific information on each type such as Adrenal gland tumour and Carcinoid tumor. People with an endocrine tumor may experience the following symptoms or signs. Sometimes, people with an endocrine tumor do not have any of these changes. Or, the cause of a symptom may be another medical condition that is not a tumor. Thickening or lump in any part of the body, Persistent pain in a specific area, Anxiety, including panic attacks, Irritability, Depression, Confusion, Nervousness, Fatigue, Changes in bowel or bladder habits, Jaundice, Facial flushing, Unexplained weight gain or loss, Intestinal bleeding .

  • Track 3-1Adrenal gland tumours
  • Track 3-2Parathyroid gland tumours
  • Track 3-3Pancreatic cancer

The endocrine system consists of cells that produce hormones. Hormones are chemical substances that are formed in the body and carried in the bloodstream to have a specific regulatory effect on the activity of other organs or cells in the body. For example, a component of the pancreas is made up of specialized cells clustered together in islands within the organ, called islets of Langerhans. These cells produce multiple hormones, the most critical one being insulin, which is a substance that helps control the amount of sugar in the blood. An endocrine cancer is a growth that affects the parts of the body that secrete hormones. Because an endocrine tumor arises from cells that produce hormones, the tumor itself can produce hormones and cause serious illness.   

  • Track 4-1Pancreatic cancer
  • Track 4-2Thyroid cancer

Other symptoms such as behaviour changes, changes in school performance, and persistent belly pain may also be present. When the gland produces too much thyroid hormone , the condition is called hyperthyroidism. When the gland produces too little thyroid hormone , the condition is called hypothyroidism. Thyroid hormone can also lead to   Hypothyroidism in new born. Women are more likely than men to have thyroid disease. One in eight women will develop thyroid problems during her lifetime. For example, women are at particularly high risk for developing thyroid disorders following Infertility, Miscarriage & Complications during pregnancy & childbirth. And more over Diabetes is the most common medical complication during pregnancy, representing 3.3% of all live births. No matter what type of Diabetes you have, there are many steps you and your health care team can take in order to have a safe and healthy pregnancy. In women, thyroid diseases can cause problems with your menstrual period, Problems getting pregnant, Problems during pregnancy.

The chemical reactions of metabolism are organized into metabolic pathways, in which one chemical is transformed through a series of steps into another chemical, by a sequence of enzymes. There are multiple levels of metabolic regulation. In intrinsic regulation, the metabolic pathway self-regulates to respond to changes in the levels of substrates or products a decrease in the amount of product can increase the flux through the pathway to compensate. This type of regulation often involves allosteric regulation of the activities of multiple enzymes in the pathway. Being overweight increases the chances of developing the common type of diabetes, type 2 diabetes

Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology was established to meet the demand for integrated publication on all aspects related to the genetic and biochemical effects, synthesis and secretions of extracellular signals  and to the understanding of cellular regulatory.

Genomics in Endocrinology focuses on exciting new advances in endocrinology resulting from DNA microarray studies and includes a comprehensive introduction to the use of DNA microarrays in endocrinology. The volume provides the basis for further understanding of the usefulness of microarray analyses in endocrinology research. Topics discussed are the methodology of DNA microarrays and general methods for the analysis of microarray data, as well as studies of a wide variety of normal and abnormal endocrine cells.

The cardiovascular system responds to multiple endocrine signals, and there are strong parallels between the mechanisms of endocrine and other types of signals that influence the function of the cardiovascular system . Endocrine signals that influence the cardiovascular system can be divided largely into two types according to whether they are mediated by nuclear receptors or cell surface receptors that work by initiating second messenger signalling cascades.However, in reality, the actions of both types of signal overlap extensively and are significantly integrated. Cardiovascular disease and diabetes have emerged as major public health problems, both as distinct clinical entities and as comorbid conditions. As a result, the fields of Cardiovascular biology and endocrinology are working more closely now than ever before.

Track-10: Diseases & Disorders:

In pancreatic islet transplantation, cells are taken from a donor pancreas and transferred into another person. Once implanted, the new islets begin to make and release insulin. Researchers hope that islet transplantation will help people with type 1 diabetes live without daily injections of insulin. Xenotransplantation is the transplantation of living cells, tissues or organs from one species to another. Such cells, tissues or organs are called xenografts or xenotransplants.

Endocrine glands are glands of the endocrine system that secrete their products, hormones, directly into the blood rather than through a duct. The major glands of the endocrine system include the pineal gland, pituitary gland, pancreas, ovaries, testes, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, hypothalamus and adrenal glands. The hypothalamus and pituitary gland are neuroendocrine organs. Local chemical messengers, not generally considered part of the endocrine system, include autocrines, which act on the cells that secrete them, and paracrines, which act on a different cell type nearby. The ability of a target cell to respond to a hormone depends on the presence of receptors, within the cell or on its plasma membrane, to which the hormone can bind. Hormone receptors are dynamic structures

Lipid disorders are a group of medical conditions which refer to excessive levels of fatty substances in the bloodstream. These fatty substances include cholesterol and triglycerides. An excess of bad cholesterol increases your risk of heart disease and stroke. A paraganglioma is rare neuroendocrine neoplasm that may develop at various body sites . "Paraganglioma" is now the most-widely accepted term for these lesions that have been also described as: glomus tumor chemodectoma, perithelioma, fibroangioma, and congenital nevi.Metabolic disorders of bone strength, usually caused by abnormalities of minerals , vitamin D, bone mass or bone structure. The most common metabolic bone disorder is osteoporosis.

More recent research has led to increased understanding of the mechanisms underlying the body’s loss of sensitivity to insulin in type 2 diabetes and the development of new treatments for these individuals. For example, there is evidence to suggest that exercise and weight reduction both decrease insulin resistance. In fact, numerous studies including a landmark study funded by the NIH , have shown that these two interventions increase sensitivity to insulin and reduce the development of diabetes in people with pre-diabetes. The prevention of diabetes improves the quality and length of life, but while reducing healthcare costs substantially. In addition, researchers have discovered new medications that improve blood sugar control and reduce the incidence of diabetes and its complications.

The chemical reactions of metabolism are organized into metabolic pathways, in which one chemical is transformed through a series of steps into another chemical, by a sequence of enzymes. There are multiple levels of metabolic regulation. In intrinsic regulation, the metabolic pathway self-regulates to respond to changes in the levels of substrates or products a decrease in the amount of product can increase the flux through the pathway to compensate. This type of regulation often involves allosteric regulation of the activities of multiple enzymes in the pathway. Being overweight increases the chances of developing the common type of diabetes, type 2 diabetes. In this disease, the body makes enough insulin but the cells in the body have become resistant to the salutary action of insulin. Science proposes that being overweight stresses the insides of individual cells. Specifically, overeating stresses the membranous network inside of cells called endoplasmic reticulum .

In pancreatic islet transplantation, cells are taken from a donor pancreas and transferred into another person. Once implanted, the new islets begin to make and release insulin. Researchers hope that islet transplantation will help people with type 1 diabetes live without daily injections of insulin. Xenotransplantation is the transplantation of living cells, tissues or organs from one species to another. Such cells, tissues or organs are called xenografts or xenotransplants.

The gland needs specific vitamins and minerals to properly do its job. Since we are all unique in how our hormones are functioning where individual levels may be off balance. Research shows us that there are a few key nutrients that are highly valuable for everyone. Some nutrients heavily influence the function of the thyroid gland, and certain foods can inhibit your body's ability to absorb the replacement hormones. There's no such thing as a hypothyroidism diet that will make you well, but eating smart can help you feel better despite the condition. There are many ways to support health easily and naturally, utilizing food and nutrients to encourage proper functioning. The way we eat can actually help, or hurt, our Endocrine System. The nutrients our endocrine system needs are easily accessible in many foods and dietary supplements. With the right information, we can make simple choices to improve health.

Endocrinology increases the risk of long-term complications. Endocrinology doubles the risk of cardiovascular disease and about 75% of deaths in diabetics are due to coronary artery disease. The primary complications of diabetes due to damage in small blood vessels include damage to the eyes, kidneys, and nerves. Damage to the eyes, known as diabetic retinopathy, is caused by damage to the blood vessels in the retina of the eye. Damage to the kidneys, known as diabetic nephropathy, can lead to tissue scarring, urine protein loss, and eventually chronic kidney disease. Diabetes is a leading cause of kidney failure. At least half of all people with diabetes may have signs of early kidney problems. Damage to the nerves of the body, known as diabetic neuropathy, is the most common complication of diabetes. Diabetes related foot problems may occur, and can be difficult to treat, occasionally requiring amputation.

 

Thyroid problems are not rare in children, but they are not as common as parents. Hyperthyroidism an overactive thyroid gland, is seen only occasionally in new-borns. This condition is referred to as neonatal hyperthyroidism. Although thyroid disease occurs less frequently in children than in adults, the signs and symptoms can be similar. However, there are a few important differences that need to be brought to light. Congenital hypothyroidism is a disorder that affects infants at birth, and occurs in about 1 in 4000 live-born babies. It is characterised by the loss of thyroid function, due to the thyroid gland failing to develop normally. In some cases, the gland is totally absent. About 10 per cent of cases are caused by an enzyme defect leading to deficient hormones production, iodine deficiency and a brain pituitary gland abnormality. If the diagnosis is delayed, and immediate treatment is not given, congenital  hypothyroidism can lead to growth and developmental defects, and severe mental retardation.

The metabolism of T3 and T4 combination therapy into active and inactive intermediates involves the action of 3 types of deiodinases. Recent studies of common genetic variations in deiodinase and thyroid hormone transport proteins offer fresh insights in understanding the variable response to thyroid hormone therapy and future research may clarify whether subsets of patients will benefit from challenges and improvements to combination therapy. Despite significant challenges, opportunities abound for improving the Thyroid Treatment Augments Psychiatric Therapy and also Improvements of Reproductive, Neuro-endocrinology or Neuroendocrine Function in Hypothalamic.

Endocrinology increases the risk of long-term complications. Endocrinology doubles the risk of cardiovascular disease and about 75% of deaths in diabetics are due to coronary artery disease. The primary complications of diabetes due to damage in small blood vessels include damage to the eyes, kidneys, and nerves. Damage to the eyes, known as diabetic retinopathy, is caused by damage to the blood vessels in the retina of the eye. Damage to the kidneys, known as diabetic nephropathy, can lead to tissue scarring, urine protein loss, and eventually chronic kidney disease. Diabetes is a leading cause of kidney failure. At least half of all people with diabetes may have signs of early kidney problems. Damage to the nerves of the body, known as diabetic neuropathy, is the most common complication of diabetes. Diabetes related foot problems may occur, and can be difficult to treat, occasionally requiring amputation.

Endocrine surgery is a specialized surgical field where procedures are performed on Endocrine glands to achieve a hormonal or anti-hormonal effect in the body. Almost always, this entails operating to remove a tumor which has grown on or within an endocrine gland. A common approach is endoscopic endonasal surgery. The field of Endocrine surgery typically comprises surgery for the thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, and adrenal glands. The most common Endocrine surgery operation is removal of the thyroid, followed by parathyroid surgery, and followed by the rare operation on the adrenal gland . Although not typically referred to as Endocrine surgery, it could be argured that surgery of the pituitary gland, testicles, ovaries, and pancreas are also forms of endocrine surgery since these glands are hormone producing glands as well. More classically, however, only thyroid, parathyroid and adrenal surgery are thought of as "endocrine surgery" with pituitary surgery typically thought of as a form of neurosurgery; testicle surgery typically thought of as urologic surgery; ovary surgery typically thought of as a form of gynecologic surgery; and pancreatic surgery typically thought of as oncology surgery.